Corporate Law

04 Jul

1. (a) Discuss the term ‘Continuing Guarantee’. How can it be revoked?

(b) State  briefly the rights and obligations of a bailee.

2. (a) What do you understand by the term Implied ‘Authority of a partner’?

(b)  Enumerate the acts which are not covered under implied authority.

3. (a) What are the rights and duties of a minor in relation to partnership business?

(b)   Distinguish between –

(i)  Sub-agent and Substituted Agent

(ii)  Sale, Bailment and Pledge

4. (a) Explain the rights of a partner.

(b) Distinguish between the following:

(i)  Succession and Assignment.

(ii)  Contract of Indemnity and Contract of Guarantee.

5. Write short note on.

i) Non-registration of a firm.

ii) Capacity of Contract

iii) Kinds of Bailment.

iv) Anticipatory breach of a Contract.

6. a) When is a Surety Discharged from Liability by the conduct of the creditor.

b) Describe the rules relating to passing of property in the sale of goods.

7. a) What is an illegal agreement? State the effects of illegality.

b) What is ‘Supervening Impossibility’? What are its effect upon the contract?

c) What are the remedies available to the buyer when goods in wrong quantity delivered to him?

d) When shall a retired partner be discharged from his liabilities for the acts of the firm before retirement?

8. (a) State the principles on which damages are assessed for breach of contract.

(b)  Describe the law relating to the ‘right of resale’ available to an unpaid seller in the Sale of Goods Act, 1930.

9. a) What are the rules regarding delivery of goods?

b) Distinguish between:

i) Novation and Alteration.

ii) Liquidated damages and penalty

10. a) Transferee of a partner’s interest cannot exercise the right of transferring partner.

b) Appropriation is a right primarily of the debtor and for his benefit.

c) A proposal can be revoked otherwise than by communication.

d) Right of stoppage in transit is an extension of the right of lien.

Corporate Law

27 Jun

Q1) Write short notes:

a) Void Contracts and Void able Contracts

b) Standard Terms and Freedom of Contract

c) Banking Law

d) Negotiable Instruments

Q2) Explain the procedure of Incorporation of Companies, issuance of Prospectus and Rising of Capital?

Q3) Explain the law of Contract and discuss the term Offer, Acceptance and Agreement?

Q4) Discuss the Fundamental Rights of the Business?

Q5) Discuss the aims and objectives Indian Sale of Goods Act, 1930?

Q6) What is the Intellectual Property Rights Law. Discuss its relevance to liberalization and Globalization?

Q7) What is the aims and objectives of the Standards of Weights and Measures Act, 1976?

Q8) Discuss in brief the Consumer Protection Act 1986?

Corporate Law

27 Jun

Q.1. In the following statements only one is correct statement. Explain Briefly?

i) An invitation to negotiate is a good offer.

ii) A quasi-contract is not a contract at all.

iii) An agreement to agree is a valid contract.

Q.2. A ship-owner agreed to carry to cargo of sugar belonging to A from Constanza to Busrah. He knew that there was a sugar market in Busrah and that A was a sugar merchant, but did not know that he intended to sell the cargo, immediately on its arrival. Owning to Shipment’s default, the voyage was delayed and sugar fetched a lower price than it would have done had it arrived on time. A claimed compensation for the full loss suffered by him because of the delay. Give your decision. Explain Briefly?

Q.3. The proprietors of a medical preparation called the “Carbolic Smoke Ball” published in several newspapers the following advertisement:-

“£ 1000 reward will be paid by the Carbolic Smoke Ball Co. to any person who contracts the increasing epidemic influenza after having used the Smoke Ball three times daily for two weeks according to printed directions supplied with each ball. £ 1000 is deposited with the Alliance Bank showing our sincerity in the matter. On the faith in this advertisement, the plaintiff bought a Smoke Ball and used it as directed. She was attacked by influenza. She sued the company for the reward. Will she succeed? Explain Briefly.

Q.4. Fazal consigned four cases of Chinese crackers at Kanpur to be carried to Allahabad on the 30th May, 1987. He intended to sell them at the Shabarat festival of 5th June 1987. The railway discovered that the consignment could not be sent by passenger train and asked Fazal either to remove them or authorize their dispatch by goods train. He took no action and the goods arrived at Allahabad a month after they were booked.

Fazal filed a suit against Railways for damages due to late delivery of the goods which deprived him of the special profits at the festival sale. Decide & explain briefly?

Q.5. ‘Lifeoy’ Soap company advertised that it would give a reward of Rs. 2000 who contracted skin disease after using the ‘Lifeoy’ soap of the company for a certain period according to the printed directions. Mrs. Jacob purchased the advertised ‘Lifeboy’ and contracted skin disease inspite of using this soap according to the printed instructions. She claimed reward of Rs. 2000. The claim is resisted by the company on the ground that offer was not made to her and that in any case she had not communicated her acceptance of the offer. Decide whether Mrs. Jacob can claim the reward or not. Give reasons. Explain briefly?

Q.6. In each set of statements, only one is correct. State the correct statements & Explain briefly?

a) i) A bailee has a general lien on the goods bailed.

ii) The ownership of goods pawned passes to the pawnee.

iii) A gratuitous bailment can be terminated by the bailor even before the stated time.

b) i) A substituted agent is as good an agent of the agent as a subagent.

ii) An ostensible agency is as effective as an express agency.

iii) A principal can always revoke an agent’s authority.

Q.7. A, an unpaid seller, sends goods to B by railway. B becomes insolvent And A sends a telegram to Railway authorities not to deliver the goods to B. B. goes to the Parcel office of Railway Yard and by presenting R. R. (Railway Receipt) takes delivery of the goods and starts putting them in the cart. Meanwhile the Station Master comes running with the telegram in hand and takes possession of the goods from B. Discuss the rights of A and B to the goods in possession of Railway authorities.

Q.8. X needs Rs. 10,000 but cannot raise this amount because his credit is not good enough. Y whose credit is good accommodates. X by giving him a pronote made out in favour of X, though Y owes no money to X. X endorses the pronote to Z for value received. Z who is holder in due course the pronote to Z for value received. Z who is holder in due course demands payment from Y. Can refuse and plead the arrangement between him and X Explain briefly?

Q.9. Will C has the right of further negotiation in the following cases: (B signs the endorsements) Explain briefly?

i) ‘Pay C for my use’

ii) ‘Pay C’)

iii) ‘Pay C or order for the account of B’

Q.10. A promissory note was made without mentioning any time for payment. The holder added the words’ on demand on the face of the instrument. State whether it amounted to material alteration and explain the effect of such alteration. Explain briefly?

Q.11. State whether the following instruments are valid promissory notes:

i) I promise to pay Rs. 5000 to B on the dearth of ‘B’s uncle provided that D in his will gives me a legacy sufficient for the promise of payment of the said sum.

ii) I hereby acknowledge that I owe X Rs. 5,000 on account of rent due and I agree that the said sum will be paid be me in regular installments.

iii) I acknowledge myself indebted to B in Rs. 5000 to be paid on demand for value received.

Q.12. A Payee holder of a bill of exchange. He endorses it in blank and delivers it to B. B endorses in full to C or order. C without endorsement transfers the bill to D. State giving reasons whether D as bearer of the bill of exchange is entitled to recover the payment from A or B or C. Explain briefly?

Q.13. Write a short note on the Doctrine of Indoor Management? Explain briefly? (5 Marks)

Q.14. The shareholders at an annual general meeting passed a resolution for the payment of dividend at a rate higher than that recommended by the Board of Directors. Examine the validity of the resolution. Explain briefly?

Q.15. In a prospectus issued by a company the Managing Director stated that the company had paid dividend every year during 1921 – 27, which was a fact. However, the company had sustained losses during the relevant period and had paid dividends out of secret reserves accumulated in the past. Examine the consequences of the observation made by the Managing Director. Explain briefly?

Q.16. A buys from B 400 shares in a company on the faith of a share certificate issued by the company. A tender to the company a transfer deed duly executed together with B’s share certificate. The company discovers that the certificate in the name of B has been fraudulently obtained and refuses to register the transfer. Advise A. Explain briefly?

Q.17. A insured his house against fire. Later while insure, A killed his wife, severely injured his only son, set fire to the house and died in the fire. The son survived and sued the insurer for the fire loss, advice the insurer. Explain briefly?

Q.18. a) Satrang Singh admitted his only infant son in a private nursing home. As a result of strong dose of medicine administered by the nursing attendant, the child has become mentally retarded. Satrang Singh wants to make a complaint to the District Forum under the Consumer Protection Act, 1986 seeking relief by way of compensation on the ground that there was deficiency in service by the nursing home. Does his complaint give rise to a consumer dispute? Who is the consumer in the instant case? Explain briefly?

b) Smart booked a motor vehicle through one of the dealers. He was informed subsequently that the procedure for purchasing the motor vehicle had changed and was called upon to make further payment to continue the booking before delivery. On being aggrieved, Smart filed a complaint with the State Commission under the Consumer Protection Act, 1986. Will he succeed? Explain briefly?

c) Brittle and Company, a small-scale industry, sought nursing and financing facilities from its bankers by means of grant of further advances and adequate margin money in anticipation of good demand for its products. In failing to obtain this and having become sick, it proceeds against its bankers under the Consumer Protection Act, 1986, Will it succeed? Explain briefly?

Q.19. X who was working as a truck driver had taken a general insurance policy to cover the risk of injuries for a period from 1.11.1998 to 30.11.1999. He renewed the policy for a further period of one year on 10.11.1999. On the same day, he met with an accident and suffered multiple injuries including fractures. X submitted the claim along with documents to the insurance company. The insurance company repudiated the claim on the ground that the premium for the renewed policy was received in the office only at 2.30 p.m. on 10.11.1999, while the accident had taken place at 10.00 a.m. on that day and hence there was no policy at the time of accident. Will X succeed if he files a complaint against the insurance company for this claim? Explain briefly?

Q.20 Avinash booked his goods with Superfast Freight Carriers at Delhi for being carried to Ferozabad. The goods receipt note mentioned that all the disputes would be subject to jurisdiction of the Mumbai Court. Avinash lodged a complaint for certain deficiency in service against the transporter in the District Forum at Delhi. Superfast Carriers contested that District Forum at Delhi had no jurisdiction to entertain the complaint as the head office of the transporter was at Mumbai and the jurisdiction has been clearly stated in the goods receipt not. Is the contention of the transporter tenable? Explain briefly?

Q.21. With reference to the provisions of the Consumer Protection Act, 1986, decide the following giving reasons in support of your answer.

i) Sukh Dukh Ltd. dispatched certain consignments of goods by road through Fastrack Roadways Ltd. The goods were unloaded and stored in a godown enroute on the suggestion of consignee. A fire broke out in the neighbouring godown spread to the godown and goods were destroyed. The Fastrack Roadways Ltd. claimed that there was neither negligence nor deficiency in service on their part and goods were being carried at “Owner risk” and since no special premium was paid, they were not responsible for the loss caused by fire. Whether Fastrack Roadways Ltd. is liable to pay damages to consignor?

ii) Life Insurance Corporation (LIC) formulated a scheme called ‘salary saving scheme’ under which employees of an organisation could buy an insurance policy. Premium due on each policy was collected by the employer from the salary of the employees nor did it issue any premium notice. When the widow of the deceased employee made a claim to LIC on the death of her husband, the LIC repudiated the claim on the ground that four installments of premium had not been paid. The widow was approached the consumer forum for redressal. Is the LIC liable for deficiency in service? Explain?

iii) Raman booked a ticket from Delhi to New York by Lufthansa Airlines. The airport authorities in New Delhi did not find any fault in his visa and other documents. However, at Frankfurt airport authorities instituted proceedings of verification because of which Raman missed his flight to New York. After necessary verification, Raman was able to reach New York by the next flight. The airline authorities’ tendered apology to Raman for the inconvenience caused to him and also paid as goodwill gesture a sum of Rs. 5,000. Raman intends to institute proceedings under the Consumer Protection Act, 1986 against Lufthansa Airlines for deficiency in service. Will he succeed?

Q.22. With reference to the provisions of the Consumer Protection Act, 1986, decide the following giving reasons in support of your answer.

i) Sohn sent all relevant documents in an envelope regarding consignment of goods to a buyer in the USA through Fast Service Couriers. The documents did not reach the buyer as a consequence of which the buyer could not take delivery of the goods. By the time the duplicate copies of the document had been received by the buyer, the season of the goods was over. He claimed that he had suffered a loss of US $ 5,000 as a result of the negligence of the courier. The State Commission ordered the payment to be made by the Fast Service Couriers, but the National Commission in appeal reversed the order and ordered payment of US $ 100 only as per the receipt issued by the Fast Service Courier to the consignor at the time of the dispatch of the latter. Advise Sohan.

ii) Mahesh purchased a machine from Astute Ltd. to operate it himself for earning his liverhood. He took the assistance of a person to assist him in operating the machine. The machine developed fault during the warranty period. He filed a claim in the consumer forum against the company for deficiency in service. Astute Ltd. alleged that Mahesh did not operate the machine himself but had appointed a person exclusively to operate the machine. Will Mahesh succeed?

iii) Pillai purchased a car by taking a loan from Kerala cooperative Bank Ltd. and gave post-dated cheques to the bank not only in respect of repayment of loan instalments but also of premium of insurance policy for two succeeding years. On the expiry of the policy. Pillai’s car met with an accident. Will Pillai succeed in getting a claim against the Bank?